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超遠心粉砕機 ZM 200

アプリケーションレポート (24)

  • 試料の凍結前処理

    固体試料の化学分析等を行う際には、事前にその試料を前処理(粉砕、又はホモジナイズしなけ ればなりません。この粉砕工程で大切な事は、代表性の高い試料を作製する事と、その再現性です。この2 つが両立してこそ、はじめて正確な分析結果を得る事が可能となります。多くの場合、この 粉砕工程は(衝撃、圧力、摩擦、せん断、切断等の)一般的な粉砕方法により、常温で分析に必 要とされる粒度まで落とす事が出来ます。
  • ナッツ類のマイコトキシン検査

    マイコトキシンはカビの代謝産物の一種で、人間や動物に有害な影響を与えます。マイコトキシンを代謝するカビ類は身の周りのいたるところに存在していま す。マイコトキシンの一種のアフラトキシンは、発癌性がきわめて高い危険なものであることがわかっています。特に、ドライフルーツ、香辛料、ナッツ(ピー ナッツ、ヘーゼルナッツ、ピスタチオ)や穀類(小麦、トウモロコシ)などの食品は、真菌感染によるアフラトキシン汚染の危険性があります。
  • プラスチック - その多様性

    プラスチックは種類が豊富な分、その使用用 途も多岐に渡ります。PE、PET、PC、PP、PBTやABSの様な略称 は単に材質そのものを示すだけではなく、そ の中に多くの性質を持つものが含まれていま す。使用目的に応じ、プラスチックは耐衝撃 性、堅牢性、耐熱性、耐溶媒性などの性質が 求められます。
  • 玩具中の重金属分析

    玩具は安全でなければなりません。これは玩具中のヒ素、鉛、カドミウム、およびアンチモンの様な物質の最大許容値を定めたEU指令88/378/EWGに明確に記載されており、含有量は子供に害があると推定されるレベル以下でなければいけません。最近では、玩具から基準値を上回る重金属が検出された事例がメディアを賑わせているため、消費者の安全への関心も高まっています。そのため、玩具メーカーにとっては、信頼性のある品質管理によって製品の無害を立証することが重要な課題となっています。
  • 環境負荷物質の検出(RoHS/WEEE)

    電子部品廃棄物の試料調製 ラジコンカーの分析用試料調製の方法を説明しています。  プラスチックの顔料に含まれるカドミウム、ハンダ中の鉛、ケーブルの難燃材に含まれるPBBなど、電子部品の中には有害物質が含まれている可能性が数多くあります。EUの有害物質規制に関する指令(WEEE/RoHS)が2006年7月に発令されて以来、機器メーカー、部品メーカー、材料メーカー、およびリサイクル業者は、その対応に迫られています。
  • 生体試料中の有害物質の分析

    凍結粉砕で生物試料の調製が容易になります。 動植物は環境汚染の度合いを測るうえで信頼できる指標です。したがって環境分析の最も重要な手段のひとつとして、生体試料中の有毒物質の分析があります。レッチェ社の粉砕機は試料の特質や成分を損なうことなく調製できるので、世界中の環境分析機関で活躍しています。ここでは、テキサスの微量元素研究所とオタワの国立カナダ野生生物研究所の2件をご紹介します。
  • 食品・飼料の肥質分析

    食品や飼料の品質を管理するうえで、脂質は非常に重要な分析項目です。脂肪量は薬品の栄養価を大きく左右する要素であり、また、乳脂肪やカカオバターなどの比較的高価な脂肪分は、効率よく利用する必要があります。加えて、新しいEU指令によって食品会社は「ライト」や「低脂肪」などの抽象的は表示ではなく、正確な脂肪分を包装に表示するように求められています。
  • Tracing poison - Sample preparation for analysis of toxic elements

    Reports on findings of hazardous substances in food products are nothing unusual these days: pesticides in fruit, arsenic in rice or toxic plant parts in tea, to name but a few. Therefore, permanent quality control is an indispensable tool of consumer protection. Apart from the actual food testing, sample preparation by homogenization is essential to obtain reliable results.
  • Safe and efficient cryogenic grinding of food samples

    Most sample materials can be ground to the required analytical fineness at room temperature. However, there are limits, for example when even a small temperature increase affects the sample in a negative way; or when the material is very elastic and will only be deformed. Moreover, food samples which are fatty or sticky may block the mill. Therefore, cryogenic grinding is the best way to pulverize food samples like cheese, raisins, wine gum or marzipan which simply clump together when ground at room temperature.
  • Book Chapter on Sample Preparation for Food Analysis

    In the book "Ideas and Applications Toward Sample Preparation for Food and Beverage Analysis," (ISBN 978-953-51-3686-6), edited by Mark T. Stauffer, RETSCH has published a chapter on reliable sample preparation of food samples. This chapter describes the process of turning a laboratory sample into a representative part sample with homogeneous analytical fineness by choosing the most suitable mill. Important aspects of size reduction and homogenization are explained, a variety of application examples is given, and specific applications such as cryogenic grinding are discussed in detail.
  • White Paper: Reproducible Sample Preparation for Reliable Food Analysis

    How to turn a laboratory sample into a representative part sample with homogeneous analytical fineness - Food occurs in a great variety of consistencies and is often inhomogeneous. Food testing labs require representative samples to produce meaningful and reproducible analysis results. Therefore, food samples must be homogenized and pulverized to the required analytical fineness, ideally with as little time and effort as possible. Furthermore, reliable analytical results can only be obtained if the entire sample preparation process is carried out reproducibly.
  • Toxic substances in our daily life

    Plastic is an inherent part of our everyday lives; it is used in a huge variety of things such as, for example, packaging, furniture, clothing or electronic devices. Though the utility of the material is undoubted, consumers are increasingly unsettled by recurring news about hazardous substances detected in plastics.
    Substances such as plasticizers, which are not firmly bound in the material, are absorbed via the skin and can influence the hormonal balance. Plasticizers contained in food packaging, for example, penetrate into the food and thus into the human body when the food is eaten. Plasticizers in toys are a particularly serious problem; children tend to take toys into their mouths thus absorbing the dangerous chemicals.  Equally hazardous are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The family of PAH comprises more than 100 compounds most of which have been found to be carcinogenic.
  • Quality control of coal: The influence of sample preparation on elemental analysis results

    The most common types of coal (lignite, bituminous and anthracite) are distinguished by their different chemical and physical properties. The calorific value of coal can be determined by analyzing its carbon content, for example with combustion analyzers. In addition, efficient management of the desulfurization plant requires control of the sulfur content. Compared to the large amount of coal a typical laboratory sample consists of - a 10 liter bucket or even more - the sample volume required for analysis is fairly low, only approx. 1 g. The standard DIN 51701 defines the sample amount to be tested as this relates to the particle size: The bigger the particles are, the more sample material is required.
  • Sample Preparation for HPLC Analysis of Confectionery

    Like all foodstuff, confectionery is subjected to strict quality controls. Parameters of interest are, for example, nutritional value, moisture or fat content, or the quantification of particular ingredients, such as vitamins or alkaloids. Typically, chromatographic methods like High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) are used to analyze food samples. Most analytical methods only require a few milligram or gram of sample; the previous size reduction/homogenization process ensures that the small analysis sample is representative of the entire laboratory sample, thus allowing for reproducible results. Moreover, homogenized samples show a much better extraction behavior.
  • The effect of grinding tools on metal contamination

    Reliable and accurate analysis results can only be guaranteed by reproducible sample preparation. This consists of transforming a laboratory sample into a representative part sample with homogeneous analytical fineness. Retsch offers a comprehensive range of the most modern mills and crushers for coarse, fine and ultra-fine size reduction of almost any material. The product range also comprises a wide choice of grinding tools and accessories which helps to ensure contamination-free preparation of a great variety of sample materials.
    The selection of the correct grinding tool depends on the sample material and the subsequent method of analysis. Different grinding tools have different characteristics, such as required energy input, hardness or wear-resistance.
  • Sample Preparation and Analysis of Arsenic in Rice

    Considerable care must be taken when analyzing a sample like rice in order to achieve an accurate result. The major source of error when analyzing a bulk material comes not from the analytical measurement itself, but from the sample handling, i.e., sampling, sample division, grinding, digestion, etc.
  • Renewable energies on the rise

    Sample preparation of vegetable-based raw materials with laboratory mills

    Thanks to the increasing usage of biomass as a source of energy, the analysis of these materials in the context of R&D and quality control gains importance, too. Due to the complex properties of plant materials, adequate sample preparation can be rather a challenge.
  • Down to the bone

    Use of laboratory grinders for size reduction of human bones and bioceramics

    Bone implants and substances for bone regeneration are used in surgery to replace degenerated bone material by implants or to “re-build” it with specific substances. The material used in implants varies from autogeneic (supplied by the patient) through allogeneic (supplied by a donor) bones to replacement materials such as hydroxylapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Bovine bones and corals are used in conjunction with synthetically produced foamed materials to form a basis for the regeneration of bone substance. Various RETSCH mills are suitable for the preliminary and fine grinding of human bones as well as bioceramic materials.
  • Sample Preparation in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    In the analysis of solid material, the popular adage that “bigger is better” certainly does not apply. The goal is to produce particles that are sufficiently small to satisfy the requirements of the analysis while ensuring that the final sample accurately represents the original material. The “particles” of interest to the analyst generally range from 10 µm to 2mm. Additionally there are many application, where even finer sizes are needed. One example are active ingredients, where it is necessary to grind in the submicron range. Finally for DNA or RNA extraction mechanical cell lysis is well-established. Materials differ widely in their composition and physical properties. Hence, there are many different grinding principles that can be applied, and this, together with other variables such as initial feed or “lump” size, fineness needed and amount of sample available, results in a wide range of models available to the researcher.
  • As fine as necessary

    A variety of methods can be used to analyze solid materials. What they all have in common is the necessity to use a representative, homogeneous analysis sample which needs to have a particular fineness, depending on the analytical method used. The size reduction and homogenization of solids is usually carried out with laboratory crushers and grinders.
  • White Paper: Representative Analysis Results Require Adequate Sample Preparation

    A faultless and comparable analysis is closely linked to an accurate sample handling. Only a sample representative of the initial material can provide meaningful analysis results. Rotating dividers and rotary tube dividers are an important means to ensure the representativeness of a sample and thus the reproducibility of the analysis. Correct sample handling consequently minimizes the probability of a production stop due to incorrect analysis results. Thus correct sample handling is the key to effective quality control.
  • Sample prep and analysis of secondary fuels

    With ever increasing socio-economic and geo-political demands, the use of secondary fuels in cement manufacture is a well-established practice for reducing both costs and CO2 emissions. The depletion of resources, combined with an increasing demand for primary fuels such as oil, gas or coal, make it paramount for energy consuming industries to search for alternative energy sources.
  • Sick with Dolls

    Traces of Heavy Metals in Toys
  • Sample Preparation of Electronic Scrap in the Context of RoHS and WEEE

    Since August 2004 new EU directives for the disposal of used electrical and electronic appliances as well as the restricted use of certain hazardous substances in these devices have become effective.

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