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アプリケーションレポート (53)

  • 太陽光発電用のシリコン

    半導体は集積回路、光学式探知器および発光 ダイオードなどの様々な電子部品に使われて います。特に太陽エネルギーを電力に変換す る太陽光発電の分野ではシリコン製の半導体 が主流です。

  • 再生可能なエネルギー

    営林作業や木材加工で生じた廃材は木材チッ プに加工されますが、木や樹皮の種類、残留 水分などによって、様々な用途に使用されま す。チップボードの原料やきのこ類のほだ木 などはその一例ですが、主に燃料として利用 されます。木材チップの品質は、樹木の種類 や保管状態によって大きく異なります。燃料 として商取引する場合、乾燥状態と含水量に よって違う発熱量の把握が重要になります。 そこでサンプルの分析結果が大切な取引条件 になるため、代表性と再現性のある試料調製 が必要です。
  • クライオミルを使った揮発性物質を含んだ試料の粉砕

    試料調製の際に、常温での粉砕よりも凍結粉砕機を使ったほうが適している場合がありま
    す。液体窒素で凍結された試料は脆化されるので、衝撃・摩擦などで粉砕されやすくなり
    ます。さらに、試料中の揮発性物質も保持できます。
    レッチェのクライオミルは、最新の安全な凍結粉砕機で優れた粉砕結果をお約束します。
  • カッティングミルSM300伝統からの革新

    カッティングミルは試料調製に広く使われている粉砕機です。二次燃料の粉砕、再生可能な
    バイオマスの研究開発、WEEE/RoHS対応の成分分析および有価金属の回収など、その
    アプリケーションは多岐にわたります。
  • 蛍光X線分析用の試料調製

    蛍光X線分析は質量分析に広く使われている分析方法ですが、試料調製が正しく行われないと正確で再現性の高い分析結果が得られません。
  • 生体試料中の有害物質の分析

    凍結粉砕で生物試料の調製が容易になります。 動植物は環境汚染の度合いを測るうえで信頼できる指標です。したがって環境分析の最も重要な手段のひとつとして、生体試料中の有毒物質の分析があります。レッチェ社の粉砕機は試料の特質や成分を損なうことなく調製できるので、世界中の環境分析機関で活躍しています。ここでは、テキサスの微量元素研究所とオタワの国立カナダ野生生物研究所の2件をご紹介します。
  • ナッツ類のマイコトキシン検査

    マイコトキシンはカビの代謝産物の一種で、人間や動物に有害な影響を与えます。マイコトキシンを代謝するカビ類は身の周りのいたるところに存在していま す。マイコトキシンの一種のアフラトキシンは、発癌性がきわめて高い危険なものであることがわかっています。特に、ドライフルーツ、香辛料、ナッツ(ピー ナッツ、ヘーゼルナッツ、ピスタチオ)や穀類(小麦、トウモロコシ)などの食品は、真菌感染によるアフラトキシン汚染の危険性があります。
  • 環境負荷物質の検出(RoHS/WEEE)

    電子部品廃棄物の試料調製 ラジコンカーの分析用試料調製の方法を説明しています。  プラスチックの顔料に含まれるカドミウム、ハンダ中の鉛、ケーブルの難燃材に含まれるPBBなど、電子部品の中には有害物質が含まれている可能性が数多くあります。EUの有害物質規制に関する指令(WEEE/RoHS)が2006年7月に発令されて以来、機器メーカー、部品メーカー、材料メーカー、およびリサイクル業者は、その対応に迫られています。
  • エアジェットシーブAS200ジェットを使った凝集粉末の分級

    エアジェットシーブは、40μm以下の非常に細かい粉体の乾式分級に広く用いられています。また、振動式のふるい振とう機に比べて極めて短時間で分級ができるので、250μmまでの粉体にも広く採用されています。
  • AS450コントロールを使った大容量の分級

    大量のバルク材の分級には通常振動ふるい機が使われますが、ほとんどの振動ふるい機はバネの縦方向の振動を使って試験ふるいを振とうさせます。一方、AS450コントロールで採用されている分級方法は、縦・横・ねじれの三次元運動を使います。これは、試料を均等に試験ふるいの全面に移行させるので最も効果的な分級方法です。
  • Molienda ultrarrápida y ultrafina

    El nuevo molino ultracentrífugo ZM 200 de RETSCH es un molino de rotor no sólo extremadamente rápido y cuidadoso con el material molido, sino también de uso universal gracias a su amplia gama de accesorios.
  • Die neue Power Generation

    Planeten-Kugelmühlen haben seit jeher einen festen Platz in der täglichen Laborpraxis zur Feinzerkleinerung unterschiedlichster Materialien. Neben dem Mischen und Zerkleinern hat sich in den letzten Jahren auch im mechanischen Legieren z.B. thermoelektrischer oder hochkoerzitiver Materialien ein weiteres Anwendungsgebiet ergeben.
  • Kolloidvermahlungen zur Erzeugung von Nanopartikeln

    Nanoteilchen, d.h. Partikel mit einem Durchmesser von weniger als 100 Nanometer, werden seit vielen Jahren von Wissenschaftlern erforscht. Zum einen lassen sie sich im „Bottom-up“ Verfahren aus Atomen oder Molekülen synthetisieren. Im “Top-Down“ Verfahren hingegen werden größere Partikel, z.B. mit Hilfe von Labormühlen, zerkleinert. Kleine Partikel weisen durch das extrem vergrößerte Verhältnis von Oberfläche zu Volumen erhöhte Oberflächenladungen auf, so dass die Partikel elektrostatisch zueinander gezogen werden. Daher können Nanopartikel nur durch Nassvermahlung (Kolloidvermahlung) erzeugt werden.
  • Kryogene Aufbereitung von Probenmaterialien

    Die Zerkleinerung als wichtiger Verfahrensschritt der Probenaufbereitung hat einen erheblichen Einfluss auf die nachfolgende Analytik. So können zu grobe Partikelfeinheiten oder auch Inhomogenitäten insbesondere dann zu unbrauchbaren oder falschen Analyseergebnissen führen, wenn es sich um kleinste Probenvolumina handelt die repräsentativ für die Gesamtprobe sind.
  • Outdoorbekleidung: Natur pur oder dem Gift auf der Spur?

    Freizeitaktivitäten in der Natur wie Wandern, Radfahren oder Klettern erfreuen sich großer Beliebtheit. Die Textilindustrie bietet hierfür eine große Bandbreite an Funktionskleidung aus synthetischen High-Tech Materialien, die in der Regel wind- und wasserfest sind sowie atmungsaktiv. Wie Greenpeace in einer Studie von 2013[1] nachweisen konnte, finden sich in wetterfesten Textilien immer wieder Gefahrstoffe wie per-oder polyfluorierte Chemikalien (PFC), welche z. B. zum Schutz vor Wasser und Schmutz in die Kleidung eingearbeitet werden.
  • Probenvorbereitung von Böden

    Bestimmung von anorganischen Inhaltsstoffen in Bodenproben

    In Industrienationen mit hoher Besiedlungsdichte und einem begrenzten Angebot an Industrie- und Gewerbegebieten unterliegt die Nutzung von Gebäuden und Flächen einem dauerhaften Wandel. Daher sind Bodenuntersuchungen für Investoren, Behörden und Privatpersonen unumgänglich. Umweltanalytische Untersuchungen bilden die Basis, um Gefährdungen aufzuzeigen und damit Menschen und eingesetztes Kapital zu schützen. Bei SGS Institut Fresenius in Herten werden bis zu 400 Bodenproben am Tag aufgearbeitet und analysiert. Hierbei wird sehr genau darauf geachtet, dass geltende Normen und Verordnungen eingehalten werden. In Deutschland gilt die BbodSchV, wobei die Analytik auch auf die Vorschriften anderer Länder angepasst wird.
  • Repräsentative Probenvorbereitung im Umweltlabor

    Die Vermeidung von Umweltverschmutzung ist eines der zentralen Themen in den Industriegesellschaften des 21. Jahrhunderts. Eines der wichtigsten Instrumente in diesem Zusammenhang ist die regelmäßige Kontrolle mit modernen analytischen Methoden. Neben Luft- und Wasseranalytik stehen Altlastensanierungen und Deklarationsanalysen ebenso im Fokus wie die Analytik von Boden, Bauschutt, Sedimenten, Altholz, Sekundärbrennstoffen u.v.m.. Für nahezu sämtliche chemische und physikalische Analysenmethoden ist es notwendig, die Analysenprobe in einem möglichst hohen Grad zu homogenisieren und sie auf eine definierte Feinheit zu zerkleinern. Hierbei erstreckt sich die notwendige Probenvorbereitung auf alle Proben der unterschiedlichen Matrizes. Die Probenvorbereitung hat somit neben der Probenahme einen entscheidenden Einfluss auf das Analysenendergebnis, denn: Probenvorbereitungsfehler können das Endergebnis um mehr als 50% beeinflussen!
  • Schnell und schonend zerkleinern

    In zahlreichen Labors werden täglich viele unterschiedliche Probenmaterialien aufbereitet. Für die Zerkleinerung von Feststoffproben auf Analysenfeinheit wird eine Mühle benötigt, die nicht nur vielseitig einsetzbar und leicht zu reinigen ist, sondern die auch eine reproduzierbare Probenvorbereitung – und damit zuverlässige Analysenergebnisse - garantiert.
    Mit der Ultra-Zentrifugalmühle ZM 200 bietet RETSCH eine Rotormühle an, die nicht nur sehr schnell, sondern auch äußerst materialschonend zerkleinert und, dank einer umfangreichen Zubehörpalette, universell einsetzbar ist. Mit ihrem kraftvollen Powerdrive-Antrieb vermahlt die ZM 200 weiche bis mittelharte und faserige Materialien extrem schnell auf Endfeinheiten bis unter 100 µm und steigert so den Probendurchsatz im Labor.
  • Vermahlungen ohne Verlust von Inhaltsstoffen

    Kryomühle im Einsatz an der BTU Cottbus
    Bei vielen Materialien ist es vorteilhaft eine Kryomühle für die Zerkleinerung einzusetzen, statt einer Labormühle, die bei Raumtemperatur arbeitet. Die Probe wird durch den eingesetzten flüssigen Stickstoff versprödet und kann darum besser durch Schlag, Druck und Reibung zerkleinert werden; außerdem bleiben leicht flüchtige Bestandteile erhalten. An der Brandenburgischen Technischen Universität (BTU) Cottbus ist eine Kryomühle in den Bereichen Kunststoffrecycling und Biomaterialien im Einsatz.
  • Pesticide analsis of soil - not without sample preparation

    The use of pesticides in agriculture makes it possible to plant extensive mono cultures and often leads to substantial yield increases of food and feed crops. Demand and application have grown steadily over the years, leading to increased contamination of the soil due to the toxic nature of pesticides. Soils save the toxins and their decomposition products so that wildlife is also affected by them. Among the undesired side effects are damages to useful plants and insects like bees. The wind carries pesticides to uncontaminated areas such as fields used for organic farming. Rain also transports the chemicals away from their original area of application to waters and groundwater. Although in most cases the limit values for particular pesticides and their decomposition products are not exceeded, the cumulative effect on humans and animals has not been thoroughly investigated so far. The possible accumulation of pesticides in the food chain could be a source of health hazards; therefore strict quality control of soils is indispensable.
  • White Paper: Cryogenic Preparation of Sample Materials

    A solid sample material should always be sufficiently prepared by size reduction and homogenization before it is subjected to chemical or physical analysis. Care should be taken that the analysis sample fully represents the original material and that the sample preparation process is carried out reproducibly. Only then are meaningful results guaranteed. Most sample materials can be reduced to the required analytical fineness at room temperature by choosing a mill with a suitable size reduction principle (impact, pressure, friction, shearing, cutting).
  • How to minimize standard deviations by correct sample preparation

    Modern analytical methods increase precision and push detection limits to make even the smallest traces of sample components detectable. Despite this development sample preparation, which is carried out prior to the actual analysis, is frequently neglected. Errors caused by lacking accuracy in sample preparation have a much bigger impact than errors made during analysis. Just like an iceberg which is mostly hidden under water, only a small part of the sum of errors is perceived whereas the major part of potential errors is not taken into account (fig. 1). One of the reasons may be the fact that sampling and sample preparation have always been done in a traditional way which has become a routine over the years and is no longer considered as having a critical influence on the subsequent analyses.
  • Sample Division of Large Volumes

    Representative sampling of large sample volumes is an integral part of the physical and chemical analysis of bulk goods and has a decisive influence on the quality of the results. Extraction of a sample from the bulk is not always carried out in a way to ensure representativeness. This is a widespread flaw in the quality control process with a negative impact on the subsequent analysis results. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the correct sampling procedure. Sample division is often considered as a labor-intensive process which not always leads to representative results. RETSCH provides some convenient solutions which help to improve working conditions and thereby the quality of the sampling process.
  • Ultrafine Grinding with Laboratory Ball Mills

    How are nano particles produced? The “Bottom-Up” method synthesizes particles from atoms or molecules. The “Top-Down” method involves reducing the size of larger particles to nanoscale, for example with laboratory mills. Due to their significantly enlarged surface in relation to the volume, small particles are drawn to each other by their electrostatic charges. Nano particles are produced by colloidal grinding which involves dispersion of the particles in liquid to neutralize the surface charges. Both water and alcohol can be used as dispersion medium, depending on the sample material. Factors such as energy input and size reduction principle make ball mills the best choice for the production of nanoparticles.
  • Toxic substances in our daily life

    Plastic is an inherent part of our everyday lives; it is used in a huge variety of things such as, for example, packaging, furniture, clothing or electronic devices. Though the utility of the material is undoubted, consumers are increasingly unsettled by recurring news about hazardous substances detected in plastics.
    Substances such as plasticizers, which are not firmly bound in the material, are absorbed via the skin and can influence the hormonal balance. Plasticizers contained in food packaging, for example, penetrate into the food and thus into the human body when the food is eaten. Plasticizers in toys are a particularly serious problem; children tend to take toys into their mouths thus absorbing the dangerous chemicals.  Equally hazardous are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The family of PAH comprises more than 100 compounds most of which have been found to be carcinogenic.
  • Emax - The Revolution in Ultrafine Grinding

    The Emax is an entirely new type of ball mill which was specifically designed by RETSCH for high energy milling. The impressive speed of 2,000 min-1, so far unrivaled in a ball mill, in combination with the special grinding jar design generates a vast amount of size reduction energy. The unique combination of impact, friction and circulating grinding jar movement results in ultrafine particle sizes in the shortest amount of time. Thanks to the new liquid cooling system, excess thermal energy is quickly discharged preventing both sample and mill from overheating, even after long grinding times.
  • Renewable energies on the rise

    Sample preparation of vegetable-based raw materials with laboratory mills

    Thanks to the increasing usage of biomass as a source of energy, the analysis of these materials in the context of R&D and quality control gains importance, too. Due to the complex properties of plant materials, adequate sample preparation can be rather a challenge.
  • Recycled glass - a valuable resource

    Today, recycled glass is the most important resource for the glass industry. The processed glass can be reintroduced to the melting process any number of times and made into new products. In Germany, currently up to 95 % of recycled glass is used for producing glass, which has various advantages: energy saving, less consumption of primary raw materials (such as lime and silica sand) and the reduction of landfill costs for waste glass.
  • Representative Sample Preparation to Environmental Analysis

    The prevention of environmental pollution is a prime issue of today’s industrialized societies. Important instruments in this context are regular checks using the latest analytical methods. Beside air and water analysis the focus is also on environmental remediation and declaration analyses as well as examination of soils, construction waste, sediments, secondary fuels and many more. Prevention and ecological recycling and disposal are the key words of a modern environmental policy. If the production of waste cannot be prevented, the primary objective is its material or energetic recycling. Residuals which cannot be recycled have to be disposed of in an ecologically friendly way.
  • Representative Analysis Results Require Adequate Sample Preparation

    A faultless and comparable analysis is closely linked to an accurate sample handling. Only a sample representative of the initial material can provide meaningful analysis results. Rotating dividers and rotary tube dividers are an important means to ensure the representativeness of a sample and thus the reproducibility of the analysis. Correct sample handling consequently minimizes the probability of a production stop due to incorrect analysis results. Thus correct sample handling is the key to effective quality control.
  • CryoMill - Cryogenic grinding was never more convenient or efficient

    Some sample materials have properties which make size reduction at ambient temperature impossible. If, for example, very elastic materials need to be ground or volatile components have to be preserved for further analysis, it is essential to carry out cryogenic grinding. The use of liquid nitrogen helps to embrittle the sample, thus improving its breaking properties, and preventing volatile substances from escaping due to the frictional heat produced by the grinding process.
  • Scrap turned into raw materials: End-of-life vehicles re-used

    The EU directive 2000/53/EG stipulates that as of 2015 95 % of the weight of a car that has reached the end of its life span have to be recycled. The work of ARN is strongly focused on this objective. Together with partner companies they make sure that old cars are processed in an environmentally compliant way. The recycling chain begins with the companies that dismantle the car and remove raw materials and liquids. Waste management companies collect these materials and deliver them to the processing companies who reuse the materials in accordance with high production standards.
  • Secondary fuels – Energy for the cement industry

    Due to decreasing resources and increasing market prices for primary fuels like oil, gas or coal, it is paramount for the cement industry to search for alternative energy sources. With regard to the CO2 emissions trading, a switch to energy sources which have a neutral CO2 balance can be rather profitable. Usually, these are non-fossil fuels. Industries with high energy consumption have made increasing use of alternative fuels during the last years. Accordingly, the use of so called secondary fuels (also waste derived fuels/wdf or refuse derived fuels/rdf) has gained importance. These are mostly combustible fractions of domestic or industrial waste which cannot be recycled.
  • Powerful Cutting Mill

    The SM 300 excels especially in the tough jobs where other cutting mills fail. It has a freely selectable speed range from 700 to 3,000 rpm with high torque. The mill is convenient to operate and easy to clean. Reliable and extremely efficient sample preparation in the laboratory is now guaranteed with the SM 300.
  • Sample prep and analysis of secondary fuels

    With ever increasing socio-economic and geo-political demands, the use of secondary fuels in cement manufacture is a well-established practice for reducing both costs and CO2 emissions. The depletion of resources, combined with an increasing demand for primary fuels such as oil, gas or coal, make it paramount for energy consuming industries to search for alternative energy sources.
  • Preparation of Elastic Plastics for the Detection of PAH

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, short PAH, are usually a by-product of combustion and can be found, for example, in cigarette smoke or oil-based products. Mineral oil containing PAH is often used in rubber products as plasticizer, especially in black-coloured products such as car tyres, rubber grips of tools or rubber shoe soles. It was discovered that some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are carcinogenic, so that maximum permissible values have been determined for the concentration of PAH in consumer products.
  • Size reduction of elastic plastics with volatile components

    Neutral-to-analysis sample preparation for the detection of PAH and phthalates
  • Efficient Grinding at –196 °C

    RETSCH’s New CryoMill for Safe and Reproducible Grinding with Liquid Nitrogen
  • Sick with Dolls

    Traces of Heavy Metals in Toys
  • Preparation of Soil, Sewage Sludge and Sediment Samples in a Wastewater Treatment Laboratory

    The preparation of a mixture of organic and inorganic samples holds some difficulties: whereas sand, clay and stones can usually be ground to homogeneous samples with suitable laboratory mills, the high energy input can cause samples with organic components such as fat or starch to cake. Carsten Bunn, a laboratory technician at the waste water treatment laboratory BRW, has to deal with this problem every day. He treats samples which are taken from the sand traps of the wastewater treatment plants and consist of exactly that mixture. The sediments of household and industry waste water not only contain sand, clay or leaves but anything that people nowadays dispose of through the sewer system: cellulose, hair and especially food residues.
  • Fast and Reproducible Sample Preparation with a Vibratory Disc Mill

    The Vibratory Disc Mill RS 200 from Retsch is used for the quick, loss-free grinding of hard, brittle and fibrous materials to analytical fineness.
  • Cement - representative sample preparation is important

    To produce high-quality cement, the mineralogical and chemical composition of raw materials as well as intermediate and finished products has to be determined. At each stage of the production, samples have to be taken, processed and analysed to ensure quality control without gaps. Retsch offers a range of instruments that are used for sample preparation during the complete production process, from the quarrying of the raw materials to the final product. The typical sample preparation process involves preliminary size reduction, sample division and fine size reduction before the sample can be submitted to further analyses....
  • Green Chemistry in the Lab

    Mechanochemistry is a very effective method to carry out syntheses without solvents and by-products. The technical literature describes a great number of reactions where a conversion of 100% is achieved. A precondition for the establishment of mechanochemistry in the industrial sector is the availability of suitable laboratory mills. A decisive factor is that – similar to conventional preparative chemistry – ambient parameters such as pressure and temperature can be documented and monitored. The Planetary Ball Mills and Mixer Mills from Retsch fulfill these requirements.
  • Size reduction within the context of sample preparation

    In general “size reduction” is taken to mean the disintegration of solid substances by mechanical forces without altering their state.
  • Sample Preparation of Electronic Scrap in the Context of RoHS and WEEE

    Since August 2004 new EU directives for the disposal of used electrical and electronic appliances as well as the restricted use of certain hazardous substances in these devices have become effective.
  • Sample Preparation of Plastics for X-Ray-Fluorescence Analysis

    The elemental analysis of plastics has become more and more important. EC directive 91/338/EWG regulates the ban of cadmium in PVC, EC directive 94/62/EC defines limits for cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury in packing materials and EC directive 2000/53/EC defines limits for the same elements in end-of-life vehicles. This has created a strong need for a rapid and reliable testing method.
  • Sample preparation of electronic scrap with SM 2000 and ZM 200

    RETSCH mills in the context of RoHS and WEEE
  • Reliable sample preparation in food technology

    An efficient sample preparation procedure for rapid, reliable and reproducible analytical results is becoming increasingly important today. Ever more stringent requirements are being set both in research and production, e.g. for product monitoring and quality control.
  • Analysis of cadmium in plastics

    In recent years, mass media have focused on the topics of the environment and environmental conservation. With the advancement in scientific technology, resource development has progressed.
  • Sample Preparation of Solid Materials for the XRF-analysis

    X-Ray fluorescence is one of the most versatile methods to determine elements in a sample. The material is exposed to x-rays that cause each element to emit its own unique fluorescent x-ray. The subsequent analysis of the results is based on comparisons to standard samples with given chemical composition.
  • The Representative Sample Preparation of Waste

    Now that a certain environmental awareness has developed in the population over the past few years, our efforts are geared not only to avoiding waste, but also to reducing the mountains of waste which still arise by means of raw material recovery and the reintroduction of secondary raw materials into the industrial cycle.
  • Representative results require adequate sample preparation

    The following situation is typical for many production plants: After a routine quality check, the production process is stopped or an already produced batch is suspended, because the analysis results were not within the relevant critical values. But does the tested product really deviate from the specifications? The quality control managers are convinced of this because modern analysis instruments provide results with very low tolerances. The sample in question was tested several times and the result was confirmed. The question is why the product does not match the specifications although the production parameters have not been changed in any way.
    The possibility that the tested product is indeed deficient cannot be excluded. However, it is often not the product itself which causes irregular analysis results but a lack of understanding of the steps which come before the analysis.
  • Air Jet Sieving of Bulk Materials

    Particle size analysis and particle size distribution are important criteria for the quality  control of bulk materials. In a running production process, the results of a quality check must be available quickly to allow for immediate adjustment of the production parameters. Depending on the expected particle size and sample volume, different sieving methods and sieving machines are suitable for analysis. The method used for particle size analysis is primarily determined by the fineness of the material to be sieved. For dry sieving of samples with particle sizes below 40 microns, air jet sieving is the method of choice.

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