White Paper: How to minimize standard deviations by correct sample preparation
Modern analytical methods increase precision and push detection limits to make even the smallest traces of sample components detectable. Despite this development sample preparation, which is carried out prior to the actual analysis, is frequently neglected. Errors caused by lacking accuracy in sample preparation have a much bigger impact than errors made during analysis. Just like an iceberg which is mostly hidden under water, only a small part of the sum of errors is perceived whereas the major part of potential errors is not taken into account (fig. 1). One of the reasons may be the fact that sampling and sample preparation have always been done in a traditional way which has become a routine over the years and is no longer considered as having a critical influence on the subsequent analyses.
White Paper Sieve Analysis - Different methods for a variety of applications
The determination and knowledge of the particle size distribution is an essential part of the quality control process for industrial products. From incoming and production control to research and development sieve analyses are used to determine a number of parameters or simply the particle size. Easy handling, low investment cost and high accuracy make sieve analysis one of the most frequently used procedures for measuring the particle size. This white paper gives an overview of the different sieving techniques and describes the necessary steps to ensure reliable results.
White Paper: Ultrafine Grinding with Laboratory Ball Mills
How are nano particles produced? The “Bottom-Up” method synthesizes particles from atoms or molecules. The “Top-Down” method involves reducing the size of larger particles to nanoscale, for example with laboratory mills. Due to their significantly enlarged surface in relation to the volume, small particles are drawn to each other by their electrostatic charges. Nano particles are produced by colloidal grinding which involves dispersion of the particles in liquid to neutralize the surface charges. Both water and alcohol can be used as dispersion medium, depending on the sample material. Factors such as energy input and size reduction principle make ball mills the best choice for the production of nanoparticles.
Small particles help to preserve the Cologne Cathedral
The Cologne Cathedral is a venerable old building whose historic substance is preserved by continuing restoration works. Mortar is one of the construction materials that the conservators use for preservation and restoration of the ancient stones. To obtain mortar with optimum quality, the conservators at the cathedral workshop in Cologne use a RETSCH sieve shaker to determine the particle size distribution of the material.
Particle size analysis and particle size distribution are important criteria for the quality control of bulk materials. In a running production process, the results of a quality check must be available quickly to allow for immediate adjustment of the production parameters. Depending on the expected particle size and sample volume, different sieving methods and sieving machines are suitable for analysis. The method used for particle size analysis is primarily determined by the fineness of the material to be sieved. For dry sieving of samples with particle sizes below 40 microns, air jet sieving is the method of choice.
Por lo general se asocia a la noción "fragmentación", el machacamiento, de sustancias sólidas mediante fuerza mecánica. Pero también la división de líquidos en gotas o de gases en bollas representa un proceso de fragmentación.
Los más precisos resultados de trituración en el más breve tiempo se consiguen con los nuevos molinos planetarios de bolas, de Retsch. Con el PM100 y el PM200, Retsch presenta una nueva generación de molinos planetarios de bolas con uno o dos unidades de trituración, que establecen nuevos estándares de rendimiento en este segmento de la producción.
El nuevo molino ultracentrífugo ZM 200 de RETSCH es un molino de rotor no sólo extremadamente rápido y cuidadoso con el material molido, sino también de uso universal gracias a su amplia gama de accesorios.
Der Kölner Dom ist ein ehrwürdiges Bauwerk, dessen historische Substanz durch kontinuierliche Restaurierungsarbeiten erhalten wird. Die Restauratoren nutzen unteranderem auch Mörtel als wichtigen Baustoff für die Konservierung und Ausbesserung des alten Gesteins. Um die optimale Qualität bei Mörtel zu erzielen, wird in den Werkstätten der Kölner Dombauhütte eine RETSCH Siebmaschine zur Bestimmung der Partikelgrößenverteilung eingesetzt.
Nanoteilchen, d.h. Partikel mit einem Durchmesser von weniger als 100 Nanometer, werden seit vielen Jahren von Wissenschaftlern erforscht. Zum einen lassen sie sich im „Bottom-up“ Verfahren aus Atomen oder Molekülen synthetisieren. Im “Top-Down“ Verfahren hingegen werden größere Partikel, z.B. mit Hilfe von Labormühlen, zerkleinert. Kleine Partikel weisen durch das extrem vergrößerte Verhältnis von Oberfläche zu Volumen erhöhte Oberflächenladungen auf, so dass die Partikel elektrostatisch zueinander gezogen werden. Daher können Nanopartikel nur durch Nassvermahlung (Kolloidvermahlung) erzeugt werden.
Bei der Qualitätssicherung von Schüttgütern gehört die prozessbegleitende Bestimmung der Korngröße und ihrer Verteilung zu den wesentlichen Analyseverfahren. Lesen Sie, wie aktuelle Varianten der Luftsstrahlsiebung auch über lange Zeiträume zuverlässige und reproduzierbare Siebergebnisse ermöglichen.
Beim Einsatz der XRD-Mill McCrone wird die Kristallgitterstruktur der Probe bewahrt -
In Zeiten der Ressourcenverknappung sind innovative Technologien gefragt, die einen effizienten und umweltschonenden Umgang mit Rohstoffen ermöglichen. In diesem Bereich forscht auch der Mineraloge Dr. Robert Möckel vom Helmholtz-Institut Freiberg für Ressourcentechnologie (HIF), dessen Schwerpunkt auf mineralischen und metallhaltigen Rohstoffen liegt. Im Zuge seiner Projekte müssen immer wieder mineralische Proben gemahlen und homogenisiert werden, bevor sie mittels Pulver-Röntgendiffraktometrie (X-Ray Diffraction = XRD) analysiert werden können.
The overall procedure of X-ray fluorescence analysis may be divided into three different stages: sampling, sample preparation and the actual spectrometric analysis itself. Of these three, it is usually the mechanical sample preparation that takes up most of the time and will therefore be discussed in this application report.
Representative sampling of large sample volumes is an integral part of the physical and chemical analysis of bulk goods and has a decisive influence on the quality of the results. Extraction of a sample from the bulk is not always carried out in a way to ensure representativeness. This is a widespread flaw in the quality control process with a negative impact on the subsequent analysis results. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the correct sampling procedure. Sample division is often considered as a labor-intensive process which not always leads to representative results. RETSCH provides some convenient solutions which help to improve working conditions and thereby the quality of the sampling process.
The Emax is an entirely new type of ball mill which was specifically designed by RETSCH for high energy milling. The impressive speed of 2,000 min-1, so far unrivaled in a ball mill, in combination with the special grinding jar design generates a vast amount of size reduction energy. The unique combination of impact, friction and circulating grinding jar movement results in ultrafine particle sizes in the shortest amount of time. Thanks to the new liquid cooling system, excess thermal energy is quickly discharged preventing both sample and mill from overheating, even after long grinding times.
A faultless and comparable analysis is closely linked to an accurate sample handling. Only a sample representative of the initial material can provide meaningful analysis results. Rotating dividers and rotary tube dividers are an important means to ensure the representativeness of a sample and thus the reproducibility of the analysis. Correct sample handling consequently minimizes the probability of a production stop due to incorrect analysis results. Thus correct sample handling is the key to effective quality control.
Quality control is an important aspect of cement production. Sample preparation is an essential part of it, because only a representative and reproducible processing of the sample material ensures reliable and meaningful analysis results. RETSCH offers a range of instruments for dividing, crushing, grinding and sizing all materials which are involved in the production process of cement, including secondary fuels. To ensure the right choice of instrument for the right sample material, Retsch offers free-of-charge sample testing in application laboratories all over the world. Elemental analysers based on combustion technology are a useful addition to XRF analysis for the quality control of cement and related products, ensuring fast, precise and reliable determination of carbon and sulphur. With its offering of analyzers using resistance or induction furnaces or both, ELTRA covers a wide range of applications for C and S determination in organic and inorganic samples. The product range is ideally suited to the variety of analytical applications in a cement plant.
Due to decreasing resources and increasing market prices for primary fuels like oil, gas or coal, it is paramount for the cement industry to search for alternative energy sources. With regard to the CO2 emissions trading, a switch to energy sources which have a neutral CO2 balance can be rather profitable. Usually, these are non-fossil fuels. Industries with high energy consumption have made increasing use of alternative fuels during the last years. Accordingly, the use of so called secondary fuels (also waste derived fuels/wdf or refuse derived fuels/rdf) has gained importance. These are mostly combustible fractions of domestic or industrial waste which cannot be recycled.
With ever increasing socio-economic and geo-political demands, the use of secondary fuels in cement manufacture is a well-established practice for reducing both costs and CO2 emissions. The depletion of resources, combined with an increasing demand for primary fuels such as oil, gas or coal, make it paramount for energy consuming industries to search for alternative energy sources.
To produce high-quality cement, the mineralogical and chemical composition of raw materials as well as intermediate and finished products has to be determined. At each stage of the production, samples have to be taken, processed and analysed to ensure quality control without gaps. Retsch offers a range of instruments that are used for sample preparation during the complete production process, from the quarrying of the raw materials to the final product. The typical sample preparation process involves preliminary size reduction, sample division and fine size reduction before the sample can be submitted to further analyses....
The following situation is typical for many production plants: After a routine quality check, the production process is stopped or an already produced batch is suspended, because the analysis results were not within the relevant critical values. But does the tested product really deviate from the specifications? The quality control managers are convinced of this because modern analysis instruments provide results with very low tolerances. The sample in question was tested several times and the result was confirmed. The question is why the product does not match the specifications although the production parameters have not been changed in any way. The possibility that the tested product is indeed deficient cannot be excluded. However, it is often not the product itself which causes irregular analysis results but a lack of understanding of the steps which come before the analysis.